- مبلغ: ۸۶,۰۰۰ تومان
- مبلغ: ۹۱,۰۰۰ تومان
In accordance with the Sustainable Development Goal 17 of improving global partnership for sustainable development, this study examined the effect of foreign direct investment inflows, economic development, and energy consumption on greenhouse gas emissions from 1982 to 2016 for the top five emitters of greenhouse gas emissions from fuel combustion in the developing countries, namely; China, India, Iran, Indonesia and South Africa. The study employed a panel data regression with Driscoll-Kraay standard errors, U test estimation approach and panel quantile regression with non-additive fixed-effects. The study found a strong positive effect of energy consumption on greenhouse gas emissions and confirmed the validity of the pollution haven hypothesis. The environmental Kuznets curve hypothesis is valid for China and Indonesia at a turning point of US$ 6014 and US$ 2999; second, a U-shape relationship is valid for India and South Africa at a turning point of US$ 1476 and US$ 7573. Foreign direct investment inflows with clean technological transfer and improvement in labour and environmental management practices will help developing countries to achieve the sustainable development goals. Mitigation of greenhouse gas emissions depends on enhanced energy efficiency, adoption of clean and modern energy technologies, such as renewable energy, nuclear, and the utilization of carbon capture and storage for fossil fuel and biomass energy generation processes.
The study examined the effect of foreign direct investment inflows, economic development, and energy consumption on disaggregate greenhouse gas emissions. The study employed data spanning from 1982 to 2016 for the top five emitters of carbon emissions from fuel combustion in the developing countries. The study revealed a strong positive effect of economic development on CO2 emissions, thus, confirms the validity of the EKC hypothesis. The panel quantile regression showed a distributional and heterogeneous effect of FDI, GDPP and ENE on greenhouse gas emissions, however, the aggregate effect confirmed the validity of the pollution haven hypothesis. Even though foreign direct investment inflows are considered a major source of external funding which improves the economic development of a country and grows the private sector. The study revealed that foreign direct investment inflows increase CO2 emissions in the top five emitters of carbon emissions from fuel combustion from developing countries. In the process of globalization and the urge to improve economic development, many least developing and developing countries are eager to attract foreign direct investment inflows with polluting industries by engaging in an inefficient competition, such as weakening their environmental standards yet have poor environmental management systems and modern technologies to streamline polluting trends. The study revealed that there is more room for improvement as greenhouse gas emissions appear to decline at a sustained increase in foreign direct investment inflows.