- مبلغ: ۸۶,۰۰۰ تومان
- مبلغ: ۹۱,۰۰۰ تومان
Apart from economic factors, issues that may influence, bilateral tourist flows include shared histories, geopolitical factors, diplomatic relations, nationalism and domestic political issues. China and Japan provide an example of a bilateral tourism relationship that has been influenced by a range of factors beyond the usual economic factors of GDP, price and exchange rates. A recent history of invasion, occupation and attempts at reconciliation underlie contemporary diplomatic relations between these nations producing both fascination and mistrust. A detailed understanding of the full range of factors that may affect bilateral relations is necessary to understand bilateral tourism flows. This study identifies the effects of history, nationalism, occupation, socio-cultural factors and geopolitical factors on the flow of tourists between China and Japan.
As the preceding discussion highlights, diplomatic as well as historical issues may adversely affect tourism flows. Finding amicable solutions to disputes of this nature is essential if tourism cooperation is to be maintained (Moufakkir & Kelly, 2010). Failure to achieve long-term reconciliation particularly over Japan’s wartime treatment of China may led to ongoing mistrust rather than trust. From a tourism perspective, strategies that enhance trust at both the government-to-government and people-to-people levels of the type previously discussed by Butler and Mao (1996) offer the best opportunity for achieving strong and lasting bilateral travel. Although the tourism sector often lacks the ability to directly influence national and foreign policy matters there are a number of ways that it makes a positive contribution to support bilateral tourism flows. The following discussion considers the impact on tourism flows from both the government-to-government and at the person-to-person level. Government-to-government relations play a key role in providing the ‘space’ for tourism to operate. From a tourism perspective it is important for the industry to develop a capacity to lobby key government officers and politicians in relation to the needs of the tourism industry. At the international level this occurs through organizations such as Pacific Asia Travel Association (PATA), the World Tourism and Travel Council (WTTC) and the UNWTO. Similar organizations at the national level can also assist by lobbying stakeholders on issues that affect bilateral flows. High level government-togovernment diplomatic dialogue on political and security affairs is also required to build mutual trust. One example is the 1978 Treaty of Peace and Friendship between China and Japan which laid the grounds for increased business and tourism links.