- مبلغ: ۸۶,۰۰۰ تومان
- مبلغ: ۹۱,۰۰۰ تومان
Nuclear power systems capable of outputting low powers (< 100 MWth) are increasingly receiving interest internationally for deployment not only as electricity production systems, capable of operating off-grid, but also as systems able to provide industrial process heat. These ‘micro-reactor’ concepts must demonstrate economic competitiveness with other potential solutions capable of providing similar power outputs. With this in mind, reactor technologies that offer inherent advantages associated with improved power density and simplified operation, both of which are important attributes that determine economic competitiveness, are reviewed in the context of the fundamental safety functions provided by the IAEA. The reactor technology chosen based on the results of the review were: low vapour pressure coolants like molten salt or liquid metal; solid moderator material; and conventional solid UO2 fuel. Initial infinite lattice neutronic studies indicated a series of positive reactivity coefficients. A finite system was also modelled using a molten salt as the coolant. When modelling the finite system the coolant temperature reactivity coefficient became negative, the void coefficient strongly negative and moderator temperature coefficient negative to weakly positive. Given that a number of reactivity coefficients were negative to strongly negative in the finite system, the weakly positive moderator temperature coefficient is not thought to be prohibitive. Thus the design should exhibit acceptable safety performance. Whilst the importance of leakage in fast reactor cores is well known, a key outcome from this study is the strong influence of leakage on all safety related parameters for the thermal reactor designs considered here with solid moderator material. Thus it seems that safety studies for such small cores should be based on full core calculations instead of the traditional infinite lattice studies for fuel assemblies.
5. Future work
The current work has focused on the feasibility from a core design perspective of using, in conjunction with a moderator, coolants that have typically been considered for fast-reactors applications (sodium, molten salts and lead-based coolants), with a particular emphasis on molten salts. Future work should focus on optimisation of the core design and performing coupled 3D calculations (thermal-hydraulics, fuel performance and neutronics) to establish in detail the behaviour and operating conditions of core materials as a function of burnup. The scoping calculations performed so far have indicated that, once leakage is taken into account, transient behaviour should be acceptable; however, ultimately plant analyses will also need to be performed to determine core and plant system dynamics, to confirm whether the core design has viable transient behaviour.