- مبلغ: ۸۶,۰۰۰ تومان
- مبلغ: ۹۱,۰۰۰ تومان
The field of strategic communication encompasses a burgeoning crisis communication literature that seeks to identify effective and ineffective crisis communication efforts. Strategic communication has identified an array of crisis response strategies and the factors that determine when these response options are effective or ineffective. This article extracts key lessons from the crisis communication research to develop a set of guidelines managers can use to inform their crisis communication efforts. The analysis includes an examination of the crisis response strategies and their desired outcomes, the timing of crisis responses, and the situational factors that have proven to affect the effectiveness of crisis response strategies. The research results provide the foundation for evidence-based crisis communication. The guidelines help managers to understand how their communicative choices will impact the corporate reputation and other important crisis outcomes, and will help managers to make informed choices about crisis communication.
Crisis communication is an applied discipline because it seeks to find solutions to real-world problems. The earliest publications in the crisis communication body of knowledge were based on practitioner advice; practitioners who underwent crises wrote about their experiences and constructed lists of what to do and what not to do. These lists appear in practitioner-oriented publications (Coombs, 2010). The early and foundational crisis communication research publications re- flected personal experience rather than systematic knowledge (Erez & Grant, 2014). In the United States, crisis communication emerged as a practice in the late 1980s. However, serious research on crisis communication did not appear until the 1990s. As is a common pattern, the practice of crisis communication was ahead of research. The early research was predicated on subjective analyses of cases, not evidence produced by rigorous systematic research. Some 30 years later, crisis communication should be heeding the call of evidence-based management and seeking to use systematic research to guide the practice of crisis communication.