- مبلغ: ۸۶,۰۰۰ تومان
- مبلغ: ۹۱,۰۰۰ تومان
Wetting plant foliage with saline irrigation increases the uptake of toxic ions Na+ and Cl−. Over three consecutive seasons, Colombard vines grafted on Ramsey rootstock were irrigated with saline water (EC 3.5 dS/m) by over-canopy sprinklers during any one of the first three of the four annual growth stages: bud burst to full bloom (treatment BB–FB), full bloom to veraison (treatment FB–V), and veraison to harvest (treatment V–H). At other times, vines received non-saline water (EC 0.5 dS/m) as did the control. Seasonal average soil salinities remained relatively constant over the trial. In contrast, the concentrations of Na+ and Cl− in one-year old wood and grape juice more than doubled. In treatments FB–V and V–H the average yield over the three seasons was reduced by up to 15%. Results were compared with those obtained in an earlier study which was undertaken in the same vineyard with the same treatments applied via dripper. With drippers, the maximum reduction in the average yield over three seasons was 2%. Saline sprinkling caused rises in Na+ and Cl− concentrations of fruit, leaf lamina and one-year-old wood that were at least 7-fold, 5-fold and 2-fold greater, respectively, than the rises caused by application of the same treatments with drip. Progressive seasonal rises in the concentrations of Na+ and Cl− in these tissues were due in part to carryover of salt added in previous seasons; with saline sprinkling the magnitude of these carryovers was 4-fold greater than those with saline drip irrigation. With saline water, vignerons can reduce losses by using irrigation systems which do not wet the foliage.