- مبلغ: ۸۶,۰۰۰ تومان
- مبلغ: ۹۱,۰۰۰ تومان
This paper evaluates the impact of location on hotel efficiency using a sample of 400 Spanish hotels, the novel aspect being that location is considered at the tourist destination level. Moreover, for the first time, the location variables are based on the main theoretical models concerning location in the hotel sector, namely geographical positioning models, agglomeration and urbanization economic models and competitive environment models. The methodology consists of a four-stage data envelopment analysis (DEA) model that decomposes superefficiency in the portion attributable to the tourist destination and the portion attributable to hotel management. Then, managerial efficiency is regressed against hotel characteristics, while tourist destination efficiency is explained by the characteristic of each location. The findings highlight the importance of tourist destinations, providing novel empirical support for the propositions of the main location models. Indeed, the tourist destination is the main cause of differences in the level of efficiency among hotels. The occupancy level, degree of seasonality and market concentration are the variables with the greater impact on efficiency.
Empirical studies on efficiency in the hotel sector have not deepened in the analysis of the impact of location, despite the theoretical frameworks of geographical location, agglomeration and competition, which highlight the importance of the inclusion of tourist destination variables.
This paper has analysed the efficiency level of Spanish hotels to assess the impact of location at the tourist destination level. Moreover, the determinants have been analysed using both firm and tourist destination variables: firm variables concern size, diversification, market share, quality, distance from the tourist centre and management agreements with a hotel chain; tourist destination variables include geographical positioning, externalities and the competitive environment, according to the three theoretical approaches concerning the impact of location.
Efficiency is evaluated through, a four-stage DEA model decomposing efficiency into the component attributable to hotel management and the component attributable to tourist destination was proposed, using super-efficiency scores. Then, a disaggregated regression model was used to analyse the determinants of the first component by considering internal variables and the determinants of the second component by considering a set of variables for the tourist destination consistent with the theoretical framework of hotel location models. So, from a methodological point of view, this paper has made three main contributions: i) the use of “programme” and “managerial” efficiency to decompose the level of efficiency between the hotel and the tourist destination; ii) the use of super-efficiencies to rank efficient hotels and reduce the effect of outliers; iii) consideration of the location at the tourist destination level and not at the regional level.