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دانلود رایگان مقاله تفاوت جنسیتی در علایق حرفه ای دانشجویان مقطع کارشناسی ارشد: اهداف افراد

عنوان فارسی: تفاوت های جنسیتی در علایق حرفه ای دانشجویان مقطع کارشناسی ارشد: اهداف افراد
عنوان انگلیسی: Gender differences in STEM undergraduates' vocational interests: People–thing orientation and goal affordances
تعداد صفحات مقاله انگلیسی : 11 تعداد صفحات ترجمه فارسی : ترجمه نشده
سال انتشار : 2015 نشریه : الزویر - Elsevier
فرمت مقاله انگلیسی : PDF کد محصول : E5009
محتوای فایل : PDF حجم فایل : Kb500
رشته های مرتبط با این مقاله: روانشناسی و علوم اجتماعی
گرایش های مرتبط با این مقاله: روانشناسی صنعتی و سازمانی
مجله: مجله رفتار حرفه ای - Journal of Vocational Behavior
دانشگاه: کانسیاس ایالات متحده آمریکا
کلمات کلیدی: برجسته های STEM ، انطباق نقش، مقرون به صرفه بودن هدف،نقش های جنسیتی
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چکیده

abstract

This study addressed why women have greater representation in some STEM (science, technology, engineering, and mathematics) fields compared to others by linking two theoretical approaches, people–thing orientation (PO, TO) and role congruity theory, which emphasizes occupation goal affordances associated with traditionally feminine and masculine roles. Vocational interest and goal affordance ratings (having a positive social impact, family, and occupation status) for occupations characterized as working with people or things were assessed in 1848 students (42% female; 81% white non-Hispanic) majoring in biology (gender balanced), non-biology STEM (male-dominated), and female-dominated health fields. Participant PO and TO interests were also collected. Results indicated that non-biology STEM majors showed lower PO and higher TO interests than biology and health majors. Non-biology STEM majors also endorsed PO and TO interests at similar levels, but the other two major groups indicated higher PO than TO. People Jobs were perceived to more likely afford goals related to family and positive social impact; whereas Thing Jobs were perceived to more likely afford status goals. Interest in People Jobs was similar for women in both STEM major groups. Female non-biology STEM majors were equally interested in People and Thing Jobs; whereas biology majors preferred People Jobs. PO, TO, and goal affordance ratings independently predicted interest in People and Thing Jobs, and gender accounted for very little additional variance. Taken together, the findings point to the importance of using both person–thing orientation and role congruity theory when explaining varied gender representations in different STEM fields.

نتیجه گیری

4. Discussion

The overarching purpose of this study is to advance the understanding of factors that contribute to the differential representation of women across STEM fields. Grounded in previous research on gender role congruity theory and people–thing orientation, this study is one of the first to examine the two theories together. Collectively the findings suggest that gender differences in thing orientation and the degree to which occupations are perceived to afford Status and Social Impact goals might partially explain why there is a gender gap in some STEM majors and fields but not others. Each of the four research questions contributed to drawing this conclusion.