دانلود رایگان مقاله انگلیسی فرآیند خط مشی گذاری تغییر آب و هوا در کنیا: فرآیند های گنجایشی مشورتی در بازی – امرالد ۲۰۱۷
|عنوان فارسی:||فرآیند خط مشی گذاری تغییر آب و هوا در کنیا: فرآیند های گنجایشی مشورتی در بازی|
|عنوان انگلیسی:||Climate change policy making process in Kenya: deliberative inclusionary processes in play|
|تعداد صفحات مقاله انگلیسی : 42||تعداد صفحات ترجمه فارسی : ترجمه نشده|
|سال انتشار : 2017||نشریه : امرالد - Emerald|
|فرمت مقاله انگلیسی : PDF||کد محصول : E8162|
|محتوای فایل : PDF||حجم فایل : Kb 500|
|رشته های مرتبط با این مقاله: جغرافیا|
|گرایش های مرتبط با این مقاله: آب و هواشناسی|
|مجله: مجله بین المللی استراتژی ها و مدیریت تغییرات اقلیمی - International Journal of Climate Change Strategies and Management|
|دانشگاه: School of Hospitality and Tourism Management - Murang’a University - Murang’a - Kenya|
Conventional environmental policies are largely characterized by ‘top-down' approaches. ‘Top-down' approaches regard to higher authorities defining and deciding how things should work at the community level. ‘Top-down' approaches are based on the assumption that national and the elite groups are able to design policies that will be implemented at the local level. Such approaches have given limited democratic space for the people who are affected at the local level. Most policies that have followed this approach to some extent have failed in a number of regions both in the ‘north'1 and ‘south' during the late 1960 and throughout 1970s (Kamruzzaman, 2012). In the aftermath, democratic freedom of local communities to participate in the policy processes, a growth of social movements where the local communities and concerned parties come up with other means to rise against certain policies that affect them or may be of interest to them (Holmes and Scoones, 2000; Kamruzzaman, 2012). Such processes not only produce surprises and uncertainty but involve complex engagement of elements within a system (Ratter, 2013).
This study aimed at analysing climate change policy making process in Kenya in the period 2008-2014. The study reveals that this particular process was chaotic rather than swift. Our analysis shows how the process plays in a wavering space of deliberations, as well as conventionality to reach policy outcome. The complexity of such an oscillating approach is a snarl up to policy outcome occasioned by possible grass root resistance to the conventional approach, and the impasse of a deliberative route being complicated by disparity in participation level of represented groups. Policy makers thus should consider the fact that policy making process can not be confined to a linear approach, and embark on tactics that are sensitive to the complexities of inclusion, deliberations and negotiations.
The role of civil society was revealed as instrumental in advocacy as observed in this case. The CSOs were important in kick starting the process and advocating for government action on climate change response through policy formulation. The journey towards developing climate change process was kicked off by inviting interested parties through an inclusionary process. That process is deliberate and determines the nature of narratives, networks and interests. As mentioned before, it was also revealed that policy outcomes are shaped by three core elements including: Discourse and Narattives; Actors, Institutions and Network and Politics and Interests. Other factors include financial strength, power over control, information and abilities to convince.