- مبلغ: ۸۶,۰۰۰ تومان
- مبلغ: ۹۱,۰۰۰ تومان
Facilities management within large space buildings used by large crowds must involve effective risk management as a key component. Poor risk management within large space buildings such as sports stadiums, concert halls, and religious buildings have resulted in crowd disasters in various venues across the world. Fruin suggested that Force, Information, Space and Time (FIST) are the main factors that influence the occurrence of crowd disaster. Within the built environment, safety is considered in two main parts: objective safety (normative and substantive) and subjective safety (perceived). This paper theorised that poor perceived safety alone could result in crowd disaster, and by using the FIST model, it investigates the relationship between the four critical FIST factors and perceived safety in crowded large space buildings. The research chose to use the Holy Mosque in Makkah as a case study, a building where large crowd always use on a continuous basis all year round with its peak occupancy usually reached during the Hajj (an annual pilgrimage to Makkah that is undertaken by Muslims from all over the world). The Holy Mosque is a large building of 356,800 square metres with a maximum capacity of two million users (pilgrims). Data was collected using iPad devices via a group-administered questionnaire distributed to 1940 pilgrims of 62 different nationalities. The results were analysed using SPSS for descriptive analysis and AMOS 22 for Confirmatory Factor Analysis (CFA) and Structural Equation Modelling (SEM). The fitness of the model was tested, and the unidimensionality, convergent validity, discriminant validity, and reliability were assessed. The findings confirmed that there is a significant relationship between the FIST factors and perceived safety in crowded large space buildings. These findings will assist the facilities managers by making them aware of the users’ safety perception and the factors that make them feel unsafe.
This study used Structural Equation Modeling technique to examine each of the relationships between perceived force, perceived poor information, perceived insufficient space, perceived poor real time and perceived safety factors in crowded large space buildings. The paper chose the Holy Mosque used by pilgrims during the Hajj event. It was found that all four perceived FIST factors have a significant influence on perceived safety.
The paper initially presents the results of CFA examining five important factors that may cause risk to crowd safety. The theoretical pattern of the variables loading on a developed construct was tested confirming the validity and reliability of the model. After conducting the CFA procedures, 19 items with an acceptable factor loading of at least 0.60 were identified (as detailed in Table 2). The result of the assessment of the measurement model has shown solid evidence of validity and reliability. It also clearly confirms that the items on each construct of the study are reliable and the model has got enough measurement properties.
In crowded large space buildings, this paper has confirmed that building safety risk management system should not only focus on objective safety; it must also include subjective safety. To help integrate subjective safety into the risk management system, the paper has identified 19 key indicators (items) that must be included in the new framework for implementation. These items are listed in Table 2.