- مبلغ: ۸۶,۰۰۰ تومان
- مبلغ: ۹۱,۰۰۰ تومان
Background: The fruit of the date palm (Phoenix dactylifera L.) is one of the most abundant fruits in the world. Hundreds of varieties having different texture, color, and flavor are available for valorization and adoption in food processing operations. Such utilization should be based on the fruit valuable characteristics; mainly its richness in dietary fiber and phenolic antioxidants. Scope and approach: This review article complements these existing reviews by primarily addressing the chemistry and processing of date fruits pulp and seeds with particular emphasis on dietary fiber and antioxidants as linked to important fruit processing and utilization features. Key findings and conclusions: Date fruits contain 6.5–11.5% total dietary fibers (of which 84–94% insoluble and 6– 16% soluble dietary fiber) and is very rich in phenolic antioxidants (1–2%) especially condensed tannin pigments based on (−)-epicatechin oligomers. Date seeds contain about 15% of fiber, characterized by a high level of water-insoluble mannan fibers. Date fruits are widely available in the global market, mainly at mature Tamr stage, but there is still room for improvement. It has been suggested that date fruits and seeds can be exploited in some food applications utilizing their high levels of fiber and antioxidants. The incorporation of date fruits and seeds as food ingredients is still growing with the aim to promote the presence of dates in the modern's consumer shopping basket.
Date fruits are widely produced and represent rich sources of sugar, fiber and phenolic antioxidants. Date fruits provide high variability food raw materials due to its possible consumption at three development stages from a very wide range of varieties. Despite high production, date fruits are underutilized and more focused research is needed to add value to this crop. Industrial utilization of date fruits should be based on their distinct phenotypical and biochemical features responsible for shape, taste, flavor, and nutritional value. Three areas for research and development are prioritized, (i) establishing an identification and classification system for potential date varieties, (ii) understanding the relationship between chemical composition of date fruits and its contribution to fruit color, texture, and taste, and (iii) evaluation of the nutritional value of date fruits and seeds including the assessment of antioxidant and estrogenic activity in humans.