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دانلود رایگان مقاله پیشرفت در بیوتکنولوژی پاپایا

عنوان فارسی: پیشرفت در بیوتکنولوژی پاپایا
عنوان انگلیسی: Advances in papaya biotechnology
تعداد صفحات مقاله انگلیسی : 10 تعداد صفحات ترجمه فارسی : ترجمه نشده
سال انتشار : 2016 نشریه : الزویر - Elsevier
فرمت مقاله انگلیسی : PDF کد محصول : E2302
محتوای فایل : PDF حجم فایل : 1 Mb
رشته های مرتبط با این مقاله: زیست شناسی
گرایش های مرتبط با این مقاله: بیوتکنولوژی
مجله: بیوکاتالیست ها و بیوتکنولوژی کشاورزی - Biocatalysis and Agricultural Biotechnology
دانشگاه: مرکز تحقیقاتی شریدان، دانشگاه وایومینگ، امریکا
کلمات کلیدی: خربزه درختیان، خربزه درختی، در کشت، مهندسی ژنتیک
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چکیده

abstract

Papaya (Carica papaya L.) is an important tropical fruit crop. The fruit is consumed fresh and used in the pharmaceutical, rayon and food industries. Papaya improvement for stress tolerance and qualitative traits using conventional breeding has been difficult due to the narrow germplasm pool in the Carica genus and sexual incompatibility problems encountered during intergeneric hybridization with other genera in the Caricaceae family. Genetic engineering is an important tool in papaya improvement for modifying one or more traits in elite cultivars without altering existing characteristics. Advances in genetic engineering have been facilitated by concerted efforts for genome sequencing of papaya, development of papaya regeneration systems and efficient gene insertion techniques for transfer of desirable traits. Papaya regeneration via organogenesis and somatic embryogenesis has been refined during the past 3 decades. Early efforts to optimize gene insertion protocols utilized a number of reporter and selectable marker genes, viral- and bacterial-derived regulatory sequences and functional genes for biotic and abiotic stress tolerance. Transgenic plants were routinely produced with several cultivars. One of the best success stories in the commercialization of a genetically modified fruit crop has involved the development of transgenic papaya ring spot virus (PRSV) resistant Rainbow and SunUp cultivars, which saved the Hawaiian papaya industry. Additionally, genetically modified papayas with traits for disease resistance and extended shelf life have been extensively screened in field tests. The papaya genome sequence was published in 2008 and has opened new avenues for papaya improvement by precision breeding, which involves the use of regulatory and functional gene sequences from related genera of the Caricaceae family, and is a logical extension of conventional breeding and genetic transformation. The application of precision breeding technology for papaya can pave the way for the development of consumer and eco-friendly cultivars that would be developed in ways similar to conventional breeding while causing fewer GMO-related concerns.

نتیجه گیری

6. Conclusions

The significant progress made in papaya cell culture and plant regeneration, genomics and biotechnology has improved our understanding of growth and development of this important fruit crop. With the availability of genomic sequence information and refined genetic engineering protocols, functional analysis of genes responsible for important traits including yield, quality and disease resistance can be studied using forward and reverse genetics strategies. In addition, knowledge of the genome can enable improvement of papaya via precision breeding that would involve the sole use of papaya genes and genetic elements for the development of genetic constructs and their insertion into elite cultivars. Improved cultivars developed in this way would be similar to those obtained by conventional breeding, would be more consumer and eco-friendly and cause fewer GMO-related concerns and consequently improved consumer acceptance.